WESTMINSTER LARGER CATECHISM
WITH PROOF TEXTS
Q. 141. What are the duties required in the eighth commandment?
A. The duties required in the eighth commandment are, truth, faithfulness, and justice in contracts and commerce between man and man; rendering to everyone his due; restitution of goods unlawfully detained from the right owners thereof; giving and lending freely, according to our abilities, and the necessities of others; moderation of our judgments, wills, and affections concerning worldly goods; a provident care and study to get, keep, use, and dispose these things which are necessary and convenient for the sustentation of our nature, and suitable to our condition; a lawful calling, and diligence in it; frugality; avoiding unnecessary lawsuits,. and suretiship, or other like engagements; and an endeavor, by all just and lawful means, to procure, preserve, and further the wealth and outward estate of others, as well as our own.
Q. 142. What are the sins forbidden in the eighth commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the eighth commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required, are, theft, robbery, man-stealing, and receiving any thing that is stolen; fraudulent dealing, false weights and measures, removing landmarks, injustice and unfaithfulness in contracts between man and man, or in matters of trust; oppression, extortion, usury, bribery, vexatious lawsuits, unjust inclosures and depopulations; ingrossing commodities to enhance the price; unlawful callings, and all other unjust or sinful ways of taking or withholding from our neighbour what belongs to him, or of enriching ourselves;covetousness; inordinate prizing and affecting worldly goods; distrustful and distracting cares and studies in getting, keeping, and using them; envying at the prosperity of others; as likewise idleness, prodigality, wasteful gaming; and all other ways whereby we do unduly prejudice our own outward estate, and defrauding ourselves of the due use and comfort of that estate which God hath given us.
Q. 143. Which is the ninth commandment?
A. The ninth commandment is, Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
Q. 144. What are the duties required in the ninth commandment?
A. The duties required in the ninth commandment are, the preserving and promoting of truth between man and man, and the good name of our neighbour, as well as our own; appearing and standing for the truth; and from the heart, sincerely, freely, clearly, and fully, speaking the truth, and only the truth, in matters of judgment and justice, and in all other things whatsoever; a charitable esteem of our neighbours; loving, desiring, and rejoicing in their good name; sorrowing for, and covering of their infirmities; freely acknowledging of their gifts and graces, defending their innocency; a ready receiving of a good report, and unwillingness to admit of an evil report, concerning them; discouraging tale-bearers, flatterers, and slanderers; love and care of our own good name, and defending it when need requireth; keeping of lawful promises; studying and practicing of whatsoever things are true, honest, lovely, and of good report.
Q. 145. What are the sins forbidden in the ninth commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the ninth commandment are, all prejudicing the truth, and the good name of our neighbours, as well as our own, especially in public judicature;giving false evidence, suborning false witnesses, wittingly appearing and pleading for an evil cause, outfacing and overbearing the truth; passing unjust sentence, calling evil good, and good evil; rewarding the wicked according to the work of the righteous, and the righteous according to the work of the wicked; forgery,concealing the truth, undue silence in a just cause, and holding our peace when iniquity calleth for either a reproof from ourselves, or complaint to others;speaking the truth unseasonably, or maliciously to a wrong end, or perverting it to a wrong meaning, or in doubtful and equivocal expressions, to the prejudice of truth or justice; speaking untruth, lying, slandering, backbiting, detracting, tale bearing, whispering, scoffing, reviling, rash,harsh, and partial censuring; misconstructing intentions, words, and actions; flattering, vain-glorious boasting; thinking or speaking too highly or too meanly of ourselves or others; denying the gifts and graces of God; aggravating smaller faults; hiding, excusing, or extenuating of sins, when called to a free confession; unnecessary discovering of infirmities; raising false rumors, receiving and countenancing evil reports, and stopping our ears against just defense; evil suspicion; envying or grieving at the deserved credit of any, endeavoring or desiring to impair it, rejoicing in their disgrace and infamy; scornful contempt, fond admiration; breach of lawful promises; neglecting such things as are of good report, and practicing, or not avoiding ourselves, or not hindering what we can in others, such things as procure an ill name.
Q. 146. Which is the tenth commandment?
A. The tenth commandment is, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shall not covet they neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s.
Q. 147. What are the duties required in the tenth commandment?
A. The duties required in the tenth commandment are, such a full contentment with our own condition, and such a charitable frame of the whole soul toward our neighbour, as that all our inward motions and affections touching him, tend unto, and further all that good which is his.
Q. 148. What are the sins forbidden in the tenth commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the tenth commandment are, discontentment with our own estate; envying and grieving at the good of our neighbour, together with all inordinate motions and affections to anything that is his.
Q. 149. Is any man able perfectly to keep the commandments of God?
A. No man is able, either of himself, or by any grace received in this life, perfectly to keep the commandments of God; but doth daily break them in thought, word, and deed.
Q. 150. Are all transgressions of the law of God equally heinous in themselves, and in the sight of God?
A. All transgressions of the law of God are not equally heinous; but some sins in themselves, and by reason of several aggravations, are more heinous in the sight of God than others.
Psalm 15:2, 4. He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart.... In whose eyes a vile person is contemned; but he honoureth them that fear the LORD. He that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not. Zechariah 7:4, 10. Then came the word of the LORD of hosts unto me, saying.... And oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, the stranger, nor the poor; and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in your heart. Zechariah 8:16-17. These are the things that ye shall do; Speak ye every man the truth to his neighbour; execute the judgment of truth and peace in your gates: And let none of you imagine evil in your hearts against his neighbour; and love no false oath: for all these are things that I hate, saith the LORD.
 Leviticus 6:2-5. If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and lie unto his neighbour in that which was delivered him to keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing taken away by violence, or hath deceived his neighbour; Or have found that which was lost, and lieth concerning it, and sweareth falsely; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein: Then it shall be, because he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took violently away, or the thing which he hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was delivered him to keep, or the lost thing which he found, Or all that about which he hath sworn falsely; he shall even restore it in the principal, and shall add the fifth part more thereto, and give it unto him to whom it appertaineth, in the day of his trespass offering.Luke 19:8. And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold.
 Luke 6:30, 38. Give to every man that asketh of thee; and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again.... Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again. 1 John 3:17. But whoso hath this world's good, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him? Ephesians 4:28. Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth. Galatians 6:10. As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith.
 1 Timothy 6:6-9. But godliness with contentment is great gain. For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out. And having food and raiment let us be therewith content. But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition. Galatians 6:14. But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.
 1 Timothy 5:8. But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.
 Proverbs 27:23-27. Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks, and look well to thy herds. For riches are not for ever: and doth the crown endure to every generation? The hay appeareth, and the tender grass showeth itself, and herbs of the mountains are gathered. The lambs are for thy clothing, and the goats are the price of the field. And thou shalt have goats' milk enough for thy food, for the food of thy household, and for the maintenance for thy maidens. Ecclesiastes 2:24. There is nothing better for a man, than that he should eat and drink, and that he should make his soul enjoy good in his labour. This also I saw, that it was from the hand of God. Ecclesiastes 3:12-13. I know that there is no good in them, but for a man to rejoice, and to do good in his life. And also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labour, it is the gift of God. 1 Timothy 6:17-18. Charge them that are rich in this world, that they be not highminded, nor trust in uncertain riches, but in the living God, who giveth us richly all things to enjoy; That they do good, that they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, willing to communicate. Isaiah 38:1. In those days was Hezekiah sick unto death. And Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz came unto him, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Set thine house in order: for thou shalt die, and not live. Matthew 11:8. But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings' houses.
 1 Corinthians 7:20. Let every man abide in the same calling wherein he was called. Genesis 2:15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.Genesis 3:19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.
 Ephesians 4:28. Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth. Proverbs 10:4. He becometh poor that dealeth with a slack hand: but the hand of the diligent maketh rich.
 John 6:12. When they were filled, he said unto his disciples, Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost. Proverbs 21:20. There is treasure to be desired and oil in the dwelling of the wise; but a foolish man spendeth it up.
 1 Corinthians 6:1-9. Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unjust, and not before the saints? Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? and if the world shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters? Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life? If then ye have judgments of things pertaining to this life, set them to judge who are least esteemed in the church. I speak to your shame. Is it so, that there is not a wise man among you? no, not one that shall be able to judge between his brethren? But brother goeth to law with brother, and that before the unbelievers. Now therefore there is utterly a fault among you, because ye go to law one with another. Why do ye not rather take wrong? why do ye not rather suffer yourselves to be defrauded? Nay, ye do wrong, and defraud, and that your brethren. Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind.
 Proverbs 6:1-6. My son, if thou be surety for thy friend, if thou hast stricken thy hand with a stranger, Thou art snared with the words of thy mouth, thou art taken with the words of thy mouth. Do this now, my son, and deliver thyself, when thou art come into the hand of thy friend; go, humble thyself, and make sure thy friend. Give not sleep to thine eyes, nor slumber to thine eyelids. Deliver thyself as a roe from the hand of the hunter, and as a bird from the hand of the fowler. Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise. Proverbs 11:15. He that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it: and he that hateth suretiship is sure.
 Leviticus 25:35. And if thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt relieve him: yea, though he be a stranger, or a sojourner; that he may live with thee.Deuteronomy 22:1-4. Thou shalt not see thy brother's ox or his sheep go astray, and hide thyself from them: thou shalt in any case bring them again unto thy brother. And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, or if thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it unto thine own house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother seek after it, and thou shalt restore it to him again. In like manner shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his raiment; and with all lost thing of thy brother's, which he hath lost, and thou hast found, shalt thou do likewise: thou mayest not hide thyself. Thou shalt not see thy brother's ass or his ox fall down by the way, and hide thyself from them: thou shalt surely help him to lift them up again. Exodus 23:4-5. If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again. If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with him. Genesis 47:14, 20. And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they bought: and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh's house.... And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians sold every man his field, because the famine prevailed over them: so the land became Pharaoh's. Philippians 2:4. Look not every man on his own things, but every man also on the things of others. Matthew 22:39. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
 James 2:15-16. If a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily food, And one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled; notwithstanding ye give them not those things which are needful to the body; what doth it profit? 1 John 3:17. But whoso hath this world's good, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him?
 Ephesians 4:28. Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.
 Psalm 62:10. Trust not in oppression, and become not vain in robbery: if riches increase, set not your heart upon them.
 1 Timothy 1:10. For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine.
 Proverbs 29:24. Whoso is partner with a thief hateth his own soul: he heareth cursing, and bewrayeth it not. Psalm 50:18. When thou sawest a thief, then thou consentedst with him, and hast been partaker with adulterers.
 1 Thessalonians 4:6. That no man go beyond and defraud his brother in any matter: because that the Lord is the avenger of all such, as we also have forewarned you and testified.
 Proverbs 11:1. A false balance is abomination to the LORD: but a just weight is his delight. Proverbs 20:10. Divers weights, and divers measures, both of them are alike abomination to the LORD.
 Deuteronomy 19:14. Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark, which they of old time have set in thine inheritance, which thou shalt inherit in the land that the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it. Proverbs 23:10. Remove not the old landmark; and enter not into the fields of the fatherless.
 Amos 8:5. Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit? Psalm 37:21. The wicked borroweth, and payeth not again: but the righteous showeth mercy, and giveth.
 Luke 16:10-12. He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much: and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much. If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches? And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own?
 Ezekiel 22:29. The people of the land have used oppression, and exercised robbery, and have vexed the poor and needy: yea, they have oppressed the stranger wrongfully. Leviticus 25:17. Ye shall not therefore oppress one another; but thou shalt fear thy God: for I am the LORD your God.
 Matthew 23:25. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. Ezekiel 22:12. In thee have they taken gifts to shed blood; thou hast taken usury and increase, and thou hast greedily gained of thy neighbours by extortion, and hast forgotten me, saith the Lord GOD.
 Psalm 15:5. He that putteth not out his money to usury, nor taketh reward against the innocent. He that doeth these things shall never be moved.
 Job 15:34. For the congregation of hypocrites shall be desolate, and fire shall consume the tabernacles of bribery.
 1 Corinthians 6:6-8. But brother goeth to law with brother, and that before the unbelievers. Now therefore there is utterly a fault among you, because ye go to law one with another. Why do ye not rather take wrong? why do ye not rather suffer yourselves to be defrauded? Nay, ye do wrong, and defraud, and that your brethren. Proverbs 3:29-30. Devise not evil against thy neighbour, seeing he dwelleth securely by thee. Strive not with a man without cause, if he have done thee no harm.
 Isaiah 5:8. Woe unto them that join house to house, that lay field to field, till there be no place, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth! Micah 2:2. And they covet fields, and take them by violence; and houses, and take them away: so they oppress a man and his house, even a man and his heritage.
 Proverbs 11:26. He that withholdeth corn, the people shall curse him: but blessing shall be upon the head of him that selleth it.
 Acts 19:19, 24-25. Many of them also which used curious arts brought their books together, and burned them before all men: and they counted the price of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver.... For a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, which made silver shrines for Diana, brought no small gain unto the craftsmen; Whom he called together with the workmen of like occupation, and said, Sirs, ye know that by this craft we have our wealth.
 Job 20:19. Because he hath oppressed and hath forsaken the poor; because he hath violently taken away an house which he builded not. James 5:4. Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth. Proverbs 21:6. The getting of treasures by a lying tongue is a vanity tossed to and fro of them that seek death.
 Luke 12:15. And he said unto them, Take heed, and beware of covetousness: for a man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth.
 1 Timothy 6:5. Perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness: from such withdraw thyself. Colossians 3:2. Set your affection on things above, not on things on the earth. Proverbs 23:5. Wilt thou set thine eyes upon that which is not? for riches certainly make themselves wings; they fly away as an eagle toward heaven. Psalm 62:10.Trust not in oppression, and become not vain in robbery: if riches increase, set not your heart upon them.
 Matthew 6:25, 31, 34. Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?... Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed?... Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. Ecclesiastes 5:12. The sleep of a labouring man is sweet, whether he eat little or much: but the abundance of the rich will not suffer him to sleep.
 Psalm 73:3. For I was envious at the foolish, when I saw the prosperity of the wicked. Psalm 37:1, 7. Fret not thyself because of evildoers, neither be thou envious against the workers of iniquity.... Rest in the LORD, and wait patiently for him: fret not thyself because of him who prospereth in his way, because of the man who bringeth wicked devices to pass.
 2 Thessalonians 3:11. For we hear that there are some which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but are busybodies. Proverbs 18:9. He also that is slothful in his work is brother to him that is a great waster.
 Proverbs 21:17. He that loveth pleasure shall be a poor man: he that loveth wine and oil shall not be rich. Proverbs 23:20-21. Be not among winebibbers; among riotous eaters of flesh: For the drunkard and the glutton shall come to poverty: and drowsiness shall clothe a man with rags. Proverbs 28:19. He that tilleth his land shall have plenty of bread: but he that followeth after vain persons shall have poverty enough.
 Ecclesiastes 4:8. There is one alone, and there is not a second; yea, he hath neither child nor brother: yet is there no end of all his labour; neither is his eye satisfied with riches; neither saith he, For whom do I labour, and bereave my soul of good? This is also vanity, yea, it is a sore travail. Ecclesiastes 6:2. A man to whom God hath given riches, wealth, and honour, so that he wanteth nothing for his soul of all that he desireth, yet God giveth him not power to eat thereof, but a stranger eateth it: this is vanity, and it is an evil disease. 1 Timothy 5:8. But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.
 Exodus 20:16. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
 Zechariah 8:16. These are the things that ye shall do; Speak ye every man the truth to his neighbour; execute the judgment of truth and peace in your gates.
 3 John 12. Demetrius hath good report of all men, and of the truth itself: yea, and we also bear record; and ye know that our record is true.
 Proverbs 31:8-9. Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction. Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy.
 Psalm 15:2. He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart.
 2 Chronicles 19:9. And he charged them, saying, Thus shall ye do in the fear of the LORD, faithfully, and with a perfect heart.
 1 Samuel 19:4-5. And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been to thee-ward very good: For he did put his life in his hand, and slew the Philistine, and the LORD wrought a great salvation for all Israel: thou sawest it, and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause?
 Joshua 7:19. And Joshua said unto Achan, My son, give, I pray thee, glory to the LORD God of Israel, and make confession unto him; and tell me now what thou hast done; hide it not from me.
 2 Samuel 14:18-20. Then the king answered and said unto the woman, Hide not from me, I pray thee, the thing that I shall ask thee. And the woman said, Let my lord the king now speak. And the king said, Is not the hand of Joab with thee in all this? And the woman answered and said, As thy soul liveth, my lord the king, none can turn to the right hand or to the left from ought that my lord the king hath spoken: for thy servant Joab, he bade me, and he put all these words in the mouth of thine handmaid: To fetch about this form of speech hath thy servant Joab done this thing: and my lord is wise, according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth.
 Leviticus 19:15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment: thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honour the person of the mighty: but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour.
 2 Corinthians 1:17-18. When I therefore was thus minded, did I use lightness? or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be yea yea, and nay nay? But as God is true, our word toward you was not yea and nay. Ephesians 4:25. Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour: for we are members one of another.
 Hebrews 6:9. But, beloved, we are persuaded better things of you, and things that accompany salvation, though we thus speak. 1 Corinthians 13:7. Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.
 Romans 1:8. First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world. 2 John 4. I rejoiced greatly that I found of thy children walking in truth, as we have received a commandment from the Father. 3 John 3-4. For I rejoiced greatly, when the brethren came and testified of the truth that is in thee, even as thou walkest in the truth. I have no greater joy than to hear that my children walk in truth.
 2 Corinthians 2:4. For out of much affliction and anguish of heart I wrote unto you with many tears; not that ye should be grieved, but that ye might know the love which I have more abundantly unto you. 2 Corinthians 12:21. And lest, when I come again, my God will humble me among you, and that I shall bewail many which have sinned already, and have not repented of the uncleanness and fornication and lasciviousness which they have committed.
 Proverbs 17:9. He that covereth a transgression seeketh love; but he that repeateth a matter separateth very friends. 1 Peter 4:8. And above all things have fervent charity among yourselves: for charity shall cover the multitude of sins.
 1 Corinthians 1:4-5, 7. I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ; That in every thing ye are enriched by him, in all utterance, and in all knowledge.... So that ye come behind in no gift; waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 2 Timothy 1:4-5. Greatly desiring to see thee, being mindful of thy tears, that I may be filled with joy; When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also.
 1 Samuel 22:14. Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said, And who is so faithful among all thy servants as David, which is the king's son in law, and goeth at thy bidding, and is honourable in thine house?
 1 Corinthians 13:6-7. Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.
 Psalm 15:3. He that backbiteth not with his tongue, nor doeth evil to his neighbour, nor taketh up a reproach against his neighbour.
 Proverbs 25:23. The north wind driveth away rain: so doth an angry countenance a backbiting tongue.
 Proverbs 26:24-25. He that hateth dissembleth with his lips, and layeth up deceit within him; When he speaketh fair, believe him not: for there are seven abominations in his heart.
 Psalm 101:5. Whoso privily slandereth his neighbour, him will I cut off: him that hath an high look and a proud heart will not I suffer.
 Proverbs 22:1. A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favour rather than silver and gold. John 8:49. Jesus answered, I have not a devil; but I honour my Father, and ye do dishonour me.
 Psalm 15:4. In whose eyes a vile person is contemned; but he honoureth them that fear the LORD. He that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not.
 Philippians 4:8. Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.
 1 Samuel 17:28. And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spake unto the men; and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, Why camest thou down hither? and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart; for thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle. 2 Samuel 16:3. And the king said, And where is thy master's son? And Ziba said unto the king, Behold, he abideth at Jerusalem: for he said, To day shall the house of Israel restore me the kingdom of my father. 2 Samuel 1:9-10, 15-16. He said unto me again, Stand, I pray thee, upon me, and slay me: for anguish is come upon me, because my life is yet whole in me. So I stood upon him, and slew him, because I was sure that he could not live after that he was fallen: and I took the crown that was upon his head, and the bracelet that was on his arm, and have brought them hither unto my lord.... And David called one of the young men, and said, Go near, and fall upon him. And he smote him that he died. And David said unto him, Thy blood be upon thy head; for thy mouth hath testified against thee, saying, I have slain the LORD'S anointed.
 Leviticus 19:15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment: thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honour the person of the mighty: but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour. Habakkuk 1:4. Therefore the law is slacked, and judgment doth never go forth: for the wicked doth compass about the righteous; therefore wrong judgment proceedeth.
 Proverbs 19:5. A false witness shall not be unpunished, and he that speaketh lies shall not escape. Proverbs 6:16, 19. These six things doth the LORD hate: yea, seven are an abomination unto him.... A false witness that speaketh lies, and he that soweth discord among brethren.
 Acts 6:13. And set up false witnesses, which said, This man ceaseth not to speak blasphemous words against this holy place, and the law.
 Jeremiah 9:3, 5. And they bend their tongues like their bow for lies: but they are not valiant for the truth upon the earth; for they proceed from evil to evil, and they know not me, saith the LORD.... And they will deceive every one his neighbour, and will not speak the truth: they have taught their tongue to speak lies, and weary themselves to commit iniquity. Acts 24:2, 5. And when he was called forth, Tertullus began to accuse him, saying, Seeing that by thee we enjoy great quietness, and that very worthy deeds are done unto this nation by thy providence.... For we have found this man a pestilent fellow, and a mover of sedition among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes. Psalm 12:3-4. The LORD shall cut off all flattering lips, and the tongue that speaketh proud things: Who have said, With our tongue will we prevail; our lips are our own: who is lord over us? Psalm 52:1-4. Why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty man? the goodness of God endureth continually. Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs; like a sharp razor, working deceitfully. Thou lovest evil more than good; and lying rather than to speak righteousness. Selah. Thou lovest all devouring words, O thou deceitful tongue.
 Proverbs 17:15. He that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, even they both are abomination to the LORD. 1 Kings 21:9-14. And she wrote in the letters, saying, Proclaim a fast, and set Naboth on high among the people: And set two men, sons of Belial, before him, to bear witness against him, saying, Thou didst blaspheme God and the king. And then carry him out, and stone him, that he may die. And the men of his city, even the elders and the nobles who were the inhabitants in his city, did as Jezebel had sent unto them, and as it was written in the letters which she had sent unto them. They proclaimed a fast, and set Naboth on high among the people. And there came in two men, children of Belial, and sat before him: and the men of Belial witnessed against him, even against Naboth, in the presence of the people, saying, Naboth did blaspheme God and the king. Then they carried him forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones, that he died. Then they sent to Jezebel, saying, Naboth is stoned, and is dead.
 Isaiah 5:23. Which justify the wicked for reward, and take away the righteousness of the righteous from him!
 Psalm 119:69. The proud have forged a lie against me: but I will keep thy precepts with my whole heart. Luke 19:8. And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold. Luke 16:5-7. So he called every one of his lord's debtors unto him, and said unto the first, How much owest thou unto my lord? And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty. Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, An hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and write fourscore.
 Leviticus 5:1. And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and is a witness, whether he hath seen or known of it; if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity. Deuteronomy 13:8. Thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither shalt thou conceal him. Acts 5:3, 8-9. But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the land?... And Peter answered unto her, Tell me whether ye sold the land for so much? And she said, Yea, for so much. Then Peter said unto her, How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? behold, the feet of them which have buried thy husband are at the door, and shall carry thee out. 2 Timothy 4:6. For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand.
 1 Kings 1:6. And his father had not displeased him at any time in saying, Why hast thou done so? and he also was a very goodly man; and his mother bare him after Absalom. Leviticus 19:17.Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart: thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neighbour, and not suffer sin upon him.
 Isaiah 59:4. None calleth for justice, nor any pleadeth for truth: they trust in vanity, and speak lies; they conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity.
 Proverbs 29:11. A fool uttereth all his mind: but a wise man keepeth it in till afterwards.
 1 Samuel 22:9-10. Then answered Doeg the Edomite, which was set over the servants of Saul, and said, I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob, to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub. And he inquired of the LORD for him, and gave him victuals, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine. Psalm 52:1-5. Why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty man? the goodness of God endureth continually. Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs; like a sharp razor, working deceitfully. Thou lovest evil more than good; and lying rather than to speak righteousness. Selah. Thou lovest all devouring words, O thou deceitful tongue. God shall likewise destroy thee for ever, he shall take thee away, and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place, and root thee out of the land of the living. Selah.
 Psalm 56:5. Every day they wrest my words: all their thoughts are against me for evil. John 2:19. Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.Matthew 26:60-61. But found none: yea, though many false witnesses came, yet found they none. At the last came two false witnesses, And said, This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.
 Genesis 3:5. For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. Genesis 26:7, 9. And the men of the place asked him of his wife; and he said, She is my sister: for he feared to say, She is my wife; lest, said he, the men of the place should kill me for Rebekah; because she was fair to look upon.... And Abimelech called Isaac, and said, Behold, of a surety she is thy wife: and how saidst thou, She is my sister? And Isaac said unto him, Because I said, Lest I die for her.
 Isaiah 59:13. In transgressing and lying against the LORD, and departing away from our God, speaking oppression and revolt, conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood.
 Leviticus 19:11. Ye shall not steal, neither deal falsely, neither lie one to another. Colossians 3:9. Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds.
 Psalm 50:20. Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine own mother's son.
 James 4:11. Speak not evil one of another, brethren. He that speaketh evil of his brother, and judgeth his brother, speaketh evil of the law, and judgeth the law: but if thou judge the law, thou art not a doer of the law, but a judge. Jeremiah 38:4. Therefore the princes said unto the king, We beseech thee, let this man be put to death: for thus he weakeneth the hands of the men of war that remain in this city, and the hands of all the people, in speaking such words unto them: for this man seeketh not the welfare of this people, but the hurt.
 Leviticus 19:19. Ye shall keep my statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind: thou shalt not sow thy field with mingled seed: neither shall a garment mingled of linen and woollen come upon thee.
 Romans 1:29-30. Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents.
 Genesis 21:9. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking. Galatians 4:29. But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now.
 1 Corinthians 6:10. Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.
 Matthew 7:1. Judge not, that ye be not judged.
 Acts 28:4. And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.
 Genesis 38:24. And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thy daughter in law hath played the harlot; and also, behold, she is with child by whoredom. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. Romans 2:1. Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things.
 Nehemiah 6:6-8. Wherein was written, It is reported among the heathen, and Gashmu saith it, that thou and the Jews think to rebel: for which cause thou buildest the wall, that thou mayest be their king, according to these words. And thou hast also appointed prophets to preach of thee at Jerusalem, saying, There is a king in Judah: and now shall it be reported to the king according to these words. Come now therefore, and let us take counsel together. Then I sent unto him, saying, There are no such things done as thou sayest, but thou feignest them out of thine own heart. Romans 3:8.And not rather, (as we be slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say,) Let us do evil, that good may come? whose damnation is just. Psalm 69:10. When I wept, and chastened my soul with fasting, that was to my reproach. 1 Samuel 1:13-15. Now Hannah, she spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: therefore Eli thought she had been drunken. And Eli said unto her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from thee. And Hannah answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the LORD. 2 Samuel 10:3. And the princes of the children of Ammon said unto Hanun their lord, Thinkest thou that David doth honour thy father, that he hath sent comforters unto thee? hath not David rather sent his servants unto thee, to search the city, and to spy it out, and to overthrow it?
 Psalm 12:2-3. They speak vanity every one with his neighbour: with flattering lips and with a double heart do they speak. The LORD shall cut off all flattering lips, and the tongue that speaketh proud things.
 2 Timothy 3:2. For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy.
 Luke 18:9, 11. And he spake this parable unto certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others.... The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. Romans 12:16. Be of the same mind one toward another. Mind not high things, but condescend to men of low estate. Be not wise in your own conceits. 1 Corinthians 4:6. And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollos for your sakes; that ye might learn in us not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against another. Acts 12:22. And the people gave a shout, saying, It is the voice of a god, and not of a man. Exodus 4:10-14. And Moses said unto the LORD, O my Lord, I am not eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant: but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue. And the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the LORD? Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say. And he said, O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom thou wilt send. And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh forth to meet thee: and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart.
 Job 27:5-6. God forbid that I should justify you: till I die I will not remove mine integrity from me. My righteousness I hold fast, and will not let it go: my heart shall not reproach me so long as I live. Job 4:6. Is not this thy fear, thy confidence, thy hope, and the uprightness of thy ways?
 Matthew 7:3-5. And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye.
 Proverbs 28:13. He that covereth his sins shall not prosper: but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall have mercy. Proverbs 30:20. Such is the way of an adulterous woman; she eateth, and wipeth her mouth, and saith, I have done no wickedness. Genesis 3:12-13. And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. Jeremiah 2:35. Yet thou sayest, Because I am innocent, surely his anger shall turn from me. Behold, I will plead with thee, because thou sayest, I have not sinned. 2 Kings 5:25. But he went in, and stood before his master. And Elisha said unto him, Whence comest thou, Gehazi? And he said, Thy servant went no whither. Genesis 4:9. And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper?
 Genesis 9:22. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without. Proverbs 25:9-10. Debate thy cause with thy neighbour himself; and discover not a secret to another: Lest he that heareth it put thee to shame, and thine infamy turn not away.
 Exodus 23:1. Thou shalt not raise a false report: put not thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness.
 Proverbs 29:12. If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked.
 Acts 7:56-57. And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God. Then they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and ran upon him with one accord. Job 31:13-14. If I did despise the cause of my manservant or of my maidservant, when they contended with me; What then shall I do when God riseth up? and when he visiteth, what shall I answer him?
 1 Corinthians 13:5. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil. 1 Timothy 6:4. He is proud, knowing nothing, but doting about questions and strifes of words, whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings.
 Numbers 11:29. And Moses said unto him, Enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the LORD'S people were prophets, and that the LORD would put his spirit upon them! Matthew 21:15. And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the son of David; they were sore displeased.
 Ezra 4:12-13. Be it known unto the king, that the Jews which came up from thee to us are come unto Jerusalem, building the rebellious and the bad city, and have set up the walls thereof, and joined the foundations. Be it known now unto the king, that, if this city be builded, and the walls set up again, then will they not pay toll, tribute, and custom, and so thou shalt endamage the revenue of the kings.
 Jeremiah 48:27. For was not Israel a derision unto thee? was he found among thieves? for since thou spakest of him, thou skippedst for joy.
 Psalm 35:15-16, 21. But in mine adversity they rejoiced, and gathered themselves together: yea, the abjects gathered themselves together against me, and I knew it not; they did tear me, and ceased not: With hypocritical mockers in feasts, they gnashed upon me with their teeth.... Yea, they opened their mouth wide against me, and said, Aha, aha, our eye hath seen it. Matthew 27:28-29.And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe. And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews!
 Jude 16. These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; and their mouth speaketh great swelling words, having men's persons in admiration because of advantage. Acts 12:22.And the people gave a shout, saying, It is the voice of a god, and not of a man.
 Romans 1:31. Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful. 2 Timothy 3:3. Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good.
 1 Samuel 2:24. Nay, my sons; for it is no good report that I hear: ye make the Lord's people to transgress.
 2 Samuel 13:12-13. And she answered him, Nay, my brother, do not force me; for no such thing ought to be done in Israel: do not thou this folly. And I, whither shall I cause my shame to go? and as for thee, thou shalt be as one of the fools in Israel. Now therefore, I pray thee, speak unto the king; for he will not withhold me from thee. Proverbs 5:8-9. Remove thy way far from her, and come not nigh the door of her house: Lest thou give thine honour unto others, and thy years unto the cruel. Proverbs 6:33. A wound and dishonour shall he get; and his reproach shall not be wiped away.
 Exodus 20:17. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.
 Hebrews 13:5. Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee. 1 Timothy 6:6. But godliness with contentment is great gain.
 Job 31:29. If I rejoiced at the destruction of him that hated me, or lifted up myself when evil found him. Romans 12:15. Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep. Psalm 122:7-9. Peace be within thy walls, and prosperity within thy palaces. For my brethren and companions' sakes, I will now say, Peace be within thee. Because of the house of the LORD our God I will seek thy good. 1 Timothy 1:5. Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned. Esther 10:3. For Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren, seeking the wealth of his people, and speaking peace to all his seed. 1 Corinthians 13:4-7. Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.
 1 Kings 21:4. And Ahab came into his house heavy and displeased because of the word which Naboth the Jezreelite had spoken to him: for he had said, I will not give thee the inheritance of my fathers. And he laid him down upon his bed, and turned away his face, and would eat no bread. Esther 5:13. Yet all this availeth me nothing, so long as I see Mordecai the Jew sitting at the king's gate.1 Corinthians 10:10. Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer.
 Galatians 5:26. Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provoking one another, envying one another. James 3:14, 16. But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth.... For where envying and strife is, there is confusion and every evil work.
 Psalm 112:9-10. He hath dispersed, he hath given to the poor; his righteousness endureth for ever; his horn shall be exalted with honour. The wicked shall see it, and be grieved; he shall gnash with his teeth, and melt away: the desire of the wicked shall perish. Nehemiah 2:10. When Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, heard of it, it grieved them exceedingly that there was come a man to seek the welfare of the children of Israel.
 Romans 7:7-8. What shall we say then? is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet. But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. Romans 13:9. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.Colossians 3:5. Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry. Deuteronomy 5:21.Neither shalt thou desire thy neighbour's wife, neither shalt thou covet thy neighbour's house, his field, or his manservant, or his maidservant, his ox, or his ass, or any thing that is thy neighbour's.
 James 3:2. For in many things we offend all. If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man, and able also to bridle the whole body. John 15:5. I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing. Romans 8:3. For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh.
 Ecclesiastes 7:20. For there is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not. 1 John 1:8, 10. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.... If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us. Galatians 5:17. For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would. Romans 7:18-19. For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not. For the good that I would I do not: but the evil which I would not, that I do.
 Genesis 6:5. And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. Genesis 8:21. And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.
 Romans 3:9-19. What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin; As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one. Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness: Their feet are swift to shed blood: Destruction and misery are in their ways: And the way of peace have they not known: There is no fear of God before their eyes. Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. James 3:2-13. For in many things we offend all, etc.
 John 19:11. Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin. Ezekiel 8:6, 13, 15. He said furthermore unto me, Son of man, seest thou what they do? even the great abominations that the house of Israel committeth here, that I should go far off from my sanctuary? but turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations.... He said also unto me, Turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations that they do.... Then said he unto me, Hast thou seen this, O son of man? turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations than these. 1 John 5:16. If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death: I do not say that he shall pray for it. Psalm 78:17, 32, 56. And they sinned yet more against him by provoking the most High in the wilderness.... For all this they sinned still, and believed not for his wondrous works.... Yet they tempted and provoked the most high God, and kept not his testimonies.
웨스터 민스터 대요리문답
141항 - 150항
문 141. 제 팔 계명에 요구된 의무는 무엇인가?
답. 제 팔 계명에 요구된 의무는 사람과 사람 사이의 계약과 거래에 진실, 신실, 공의로움이니 각 사람에게 당연히 줄 것을 주는 것이며 바른 소유주에게서 불법 점유된 물건을 배상하는 것이며, 우리들의 능력과 다른 사람들의 필요에 따라 아낌없이 주며 빌리는 것이다. 이 세상 물건에 대한 우리의 판단, 의지, 애정의 절제이며, 우리의 생명 유지에 필요하고 편리하며 우리의 상태에 맞는 것들을 획득하여 보존하며 사용하고 처리하려는 주의 깊은 배려와 연구이다. 불필요한 소송과 보증 서는 일이나 기타 그와 같은 일을 피하고 우리들 자신의 것과 마찬가지로 다른 사람들의 부와 외형적 재산을 구하여 보존하고 증진하기 위해 공정하고 합법적인 모든 수단과 방법으로 노력함이다.
(시15:2, 4; 스7:4, 10, 8:16; 롬13:7; 레6:2-5; 눅6:30, 38; 요3:17; 엡4:28; 갈6:10, 14; 딤전6:6-9, 5:8)
문 142. 제 팔 계명에 금지된 죄는 무엇인가?
답. 제 팔 계명에 금지된 죄는 요구된 의무를 소홀히 하는 일 외에 절도, 강도 행위, 사람 납치와 장물 취득과 사기 거래, 저울을 속이는 것과 치수 재기, 땅 경계표를 마음대로 옮기는 것, 사람들 사이에 맺어진 계약이나 신탁의 사건에 있어서 불공정하고 불성실함이며 억압, 착취, 고리 대금, 뇌물 징수, 성가신 소송, 불법적으로 공유지를 사유화하는 것과 주민을 절멸하는 일이며, 물건값을 올리기 위해서 사람의 마음을 쏠리게 하는 상품을 마구 사들이는 것과 부당한 값을 부르는 일과 우리의 이웃에게 속한 것을 빼앗거나 억류해 두거나, 우리들 자신을 부유하게 하기 위한 다른 모든 불공정하거나 죄악 된 방법이다. 또 탐욕과 세상 재물을 과도하게 소중히 여기고 좋아하며, 세상 재물을 얻어 보존하고 사용하는 일에 의심 많고 마음을 산란하게 하는 염려와 노력이며 다른 사람들이 잘되는 것에 대한 질투이며, 그와 마찬가지로 게으름, 방탕, 낭비하는 노름과 우리들의 외형적 재산에 대하여 부당한 편견을 가짐이며, 우리 자신을 속여 하나님께서 우리에게 주신 재물을 바로 사용하지 못하는 것이다.
(약2:15, 16; 요3:17; 엡4:28; 시62:10; 딤전1:10; 잠29:24, 11:1, 20:10, 23:25; 살전4:6; 신19:14)
문 143. 제 구 계명은 무엇인가?
답. 제 구 계명은 '네 이웃에 대하여 거짓 증거하지 말지니라'이다.
문 144. 제 구 계명에서 요구되는 의무는 무엇인가?
답. 제 구 계명에서 요구된 의무는 사람과 사람 사이의 진실과 우리 이웃의 좋은 평판을 우리 자신의 것과 같이 보존하고 증진하는 것이다. 진실을 위하여 나서서 이를 옹호함이며, 재판과 처벌의 문제에 있어서나 무슨 일이 있어서라도 마음속으로부터 성실하고 자유롭고 명백하여 충분하게 진실만을 말하는 것이다. 우리의 이웃을 관대하게 평가하고, 이웃의 좋은 평판을 사랑하며 소원하고 기뻐함이며 그들의 연약을 슬퍼하며 덜어주는 것이며 또한 그들의 재능과 미덕을 너그럽게 승인하고, 고들의 결백을 변호함이며, 그들에 관한 좋은 소문을 쾌히 받아들이고 나쁜 소문을 시인하기를 즐겨하지 않는 것이다. 고자질하는 자와 아첨하는 자와 중상하는 자들을 낙망시키는 것이며, 우리 자신의 좋은 평판을 사랑하고 보호하며 필요할 때에는 이를 옹호함이며 합법적인 약속을 지키고 무엇이든지 참되고 정적하고 사랑스럽고 좋은 평판이 있는 것을 연구하여 실천하는 것이다.
(스8:16; 요삼12; 잠31:8, 9, 14:5, 25; 시15:2; 대하19:9; 삼상19:4, 5; 수7:19; 삼하14:18-20; 레 19:15; 고후1:17)
문 145. 제 구 계명에서 금지된 죄는 무엇인가?
답. 제 구 계명에서 금지된 죄는 우리 자신의 것과 마찬가지로 이웃이 지니고 있는 진실과 좋은 평판을 특히 공적 재판 사건에서 해치는 모든 일이다. 그것은 거짓 증거를 제공하고, 위증을 시키고, 고의적으로 나와서 악한 소송을 변호하고, 진실을 외면하고 억압함이며, 불의한 판결을 하고, 악을 선하다 선을 악하다 함이며, 악인을 의인의 행사에 따라 보상하고, 의인을 악인의 행사에 따라 보상하는 것이다. 또한 문서 위조, 진실의 은폐, 공의의 소송에도 불구하고 부당한 침묵을 지키는 것이다. 불법 행위가 우리 자신들로부터 책망을 요구하고 다른 사람들에게 항고를 요구할 때에 잠잠 하는 것이며 진리를 불합리하게 말하거나 그릇된 목적을 위해 악의로 말하고, 혹은 그릇된 의미로 혹은 의심스럽고 애매한 표현으로 진리와 공의에 불리하도록 진리를 곡해함이며, 비진리를 말하고, 거짓말하고 중상하고, 험담하고, 훼방하고. 고자질하고, 수군수군하고, 냉소적이고, 욕설함이며, 조급하고. 가혹하고, 편파적으로 비난하는 것이며, 또한 불의한 의도와 언어와 행동이며, 아첨, 허영심에 가득하고, 우리 자신이나 다른 사람들을 과대 평가 혹은 과소 평가하는 것이며, 하나님의 은사와 은혜를 부인함이며, 적은 과실을 더욱 악화시킴이며, 자유로이 죄를 자백하라고 호출된 때에 죄를 숨기거나 변명하거나 경감함이다. 또 남의 약점을 쓸데없이 찾아내는 것이며, 거짓 소문을 내는 것이며, 나쁜 보도를 받아들이고 동조하고 공정한 변호에 대하여 귀를 막는 것이며 악한 의심을 품는 것이며, 누구의 것이든 받을 만해서 받는 신앙에 대해 시기하거나 마음 아파하는 것이며, 그것을 손상시키려 노력하거나 바라며 그들의 불명예와 추문을 기뻐하는 것이며, 조소하는 멸시와 어리석은 칭찬이며, 정당한 약속을 위반함이며, 좋은 소문이 있는 일을 소홀히 함이며 누명을 쓸 일을 우리 자신이 실행하고 피하지 않거나 다른 사람들이 못하도록 능히 할 수 있는 데도 막지 않는 것이다.
(삼상17:24; 삼하16:3, 1:9, 10, 15, 16; 레19:15; 히1:4; 잠19:5, 6, 6:16, 19, 17:15; 행6:13, 24:2, 5; 렘9:3, 5; 시12:3, 4; 52:1-4; 왕상21:9-14; 사5:23)
문 146. 제 십계명은 무엇인가?
답. 제 십계명은 '네 이웃의 집을 탐내지 말지니라, 네 이웃의 아내나 그의 남종이나 그의 여종이나 그의 소나 그의 나귀나 무릇 네 이웃의 소유를 탐내지 말지니라'이다.
문 147. 제 십계명에 요구된 의무는 무엇인가?
답. 제 십계명에 요구된 의무는 우리 자신이 가진 그대로 온전히 만족하고 우리의 이웃에 대하여 마음을 다해 인자한 태도를 가짐으로써 그에 대한 우리의 모든 내면적 동기와 애정이 그의 소유물 전체에까지 미쳐 잘 돌봐 주라는 것이다.
(히13:5; 딤전6:6, 1:5; 욥31:29; 롬12:15; 시122:7-9; 에19:3; 고전13:4-7)
문 148. 제 십계명에서 금지된 죄는 무엇인가?
답. 제 십계명에서 금지된 죄는 우리 자신이 소유한 재산으로만은 불만스러워 하거나, 이웃의 행복을 질투하고 마음 아파하는 것 그리고 이웃의 소유에 대하여 욕심스런 애착심을 가지는 것이다.
(왕상21:4; 에5:13; 고전10:10; 갈5:26; 약3:14, 16; 시112:9, 10; 느2:10; 롬7:7, 8:9; 골3:5; 신 5:21)
문 149. 어떤 사람이든지 하나님의 계명을 완전히 지킬 수 있는가?
답. 아무도 자기 스스로 현세에서 받는 어떠한 은혜로 하나님의 계명을 완전히 지킬 수 없고 언행 심사간에 매일 계명을 범할 뿐이다.
(약3:2-13; 요15:15, 1:8; 롬8:3, 7; 18, 3:9; 전7:20; 갈5:17; 창6:5, 8:21)
문 150. 하나님의 율법을 범한 죄가 하나님 보시기에 다 같이 악한가?
답. 하나님의 율법을 범함은 동등하게 악한 것이 아니지만 어떤 죄만은 악화의 요소가 있기 때문에 하나님 보시기에 다른 죄보다 더 악하다.
(요19:11, 5:16; 겔8:6, 13, 15; 시8:17, 32, 56)