WESTMINSTER LARGER CATECHISM
WITH PROOF TEXTS
Q. 21. Did man continue in that estate wherein God at first created him?
A. Our first parents being left to the freedom of their own will, through the temptation of Satan, transgressed the commandment of God in eating the forbidden fruit; and thereby fell from the estate of innocency wherein they were created.
Q. 22. Did all mankind fall in that first transgression?
A. The covenant being made with Adam as a public person, not for himself only, but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him in that first transgression.
Q. 23. Into what estate did the fall bring mankind?
A. The fall brought mankind into an estate of sin and misery.
Q. 24. What is sin?
A. Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, any law of God, given as a rule to the reasonable creature.
Q. 25. Wherein consisteth the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?
A. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consisteth in the guilt of Adam's first sin, the want of that righteousness wherein he was created, and the corruption of his nature, whereby he is utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite unto all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and that continually; which is commonly called original sin, and from which do proceed all actual transgressions.
Q. 26. How is original sin conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity?
A. Original sin is conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity by natural generation, so as all that proceed from them in that way are conceived and born in sin.
Q. 27. What misery did the fall bring upon mankind?
A. The fall brought upon mankind the loss of communion with God, his displeasure and curse; so as we are by nature children of wrath, bond slaves to Satan, and justly liable to all punishments in this world, and that which is to come.
Q. 28. What are the punishments of sin in this world?
A. The punishments of sin in this world are either inward, as blindness of mind, a reprobate sense, strong delusions, hardness of heart, horror of conscience, and vile affections; or outward, as the curse of God upon the creatures of our sakes, and all other evils that befall us in our bodies, names, estates, relations, and employments; together with death itself.
Q. 29. What are the punishments of sin in the world to come?
A. The punishments of sin in the world to come, are everlasting separation from the comfortable presence of God, and most grievous torments in soul and body, without intermission, in hell-fire forever.
Q. 30. Doth God leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery?
A. God doth not leave all men to perish in the estate of sin and misery, into which they fell by the breach of the first covenant, commonly called the covenant of works;but of his mere love and mercy delivereth his elect out of it, and bringeth them into an estate of salvation by the second covenant, commonly called the covenant of grace.
Genesis 3:6-8, 13. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.... And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. Ecclesiastes 7:29. Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions. 2 Corinthians 11:3. But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtlety, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.
 Acts 17:26. And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation.
 Genesis 2:16-17. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. Romans 5:12-20. Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: (For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come. But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification. For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.) Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound. 1 Corinthians 15:21-22. For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.
 Romans 5:12. Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned. Romans 3:23. For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.
 1 John 3:4. Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law. Galatians 3:10, 12. For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.... And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.
 Romans 5:12, 19. Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.... For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.
 Romans 3:10-19. As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one. Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness: Their feet are swift to shed blood: Destruction and misery are in their ways: And the way of peace have they not known: There is no fear of God before their eyes. Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. Ephesians 2:1-3. And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins: Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. Romans 5:6. For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. Romans 8:7-8. Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God. Genesis 6:5. And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
 James 1:14-15. But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin: and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death. Matthew 15:19. For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies.
 Psalm 51:5. Behold, I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me. Job 14:4. Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one. John 3:6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
 Genesis 3:8, 10, 24. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.... And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.... So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.
 Ephesians 2:2-3. Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.
 2 Timothy 2:26. And that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will.
 Genesis 2:17. But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. Lamentations 3:39. Wherefore doth a living man complain, a man for the punishment of his sins? Romans 6:23. For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. Matthew 25:41. Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. Matthew 25:46. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal. Jude 7. Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.
 Ephesians 4:18. Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart.
 Romans 1:28. And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient.
 2 Thessalonians 2:11. And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie.
 Romans 2:5. But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God.
 Isaiah 33:14. The sinners in Zion are afraid; fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites. Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings? Genesis 4:13. And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear. Matthew 27:4. Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that.
 Romans 1:26. For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature.
 Genesis 3:17. And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life.
 Deuteronomy 28:15-18. But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee: Cursed shalt thou be in the city, and cursed shalt thou be in the field. Cursed shall be thy basket and thy store. Cursed shall be the fruit of thy body, and the fruit of thy land, the increase of thy kine, and the flocks of thy sheep.
 Romans 6:21, 23. What fruit had ye then in those things whereof ye are now ashamed? for the end of those things is death.... For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
 2 Thessalonians 1:9. Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power. Mark 9:43-44, 46, 48. And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched: Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. Luke 16:24. And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.
 1 Thessalonians 5:9. For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ.
 Galatians 3:10, 12. For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.... And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.
 Titus 3:4-7. But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour; That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. Galatians 3:21. Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. Romans 3:20-22. Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin. But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference.
웨스터 민스터 대요리문답
21항 - 30항
문 21. 우리 시조가 창조함을 받은 본 지위를 그대로 보존하였는가?
답. 우리 시조는 마음대로 할 수 있는 자유 함을 인하여 사단의 시험을 받아 하나님의 계명을 범하여 먹지 말라고 금하신 실과를 먹음으로써 창조함을 받은 본래의 무죄의 지위에서 타락하였다.
(창3:6-8; 전7:29; 고후11:3)
문 22. 전 인류는 그 첫 범죄에서 함께 타락하였는가?
답. 전 인류의 대표로서의 아담과 맺은 언약은 저만 위한 것이 아니고 그 후손까지 위한 것이므로 그로부터 보통 생육 법으로 출생하는 인류는 모두 아담 안에서 함께 범죄하여 그의 첫 범죄 때에 그와 함께 타락하였다.
(행17:26; 창2:16, 17; 롬5:12-20; 고전15:21, 22)
문 23. 이 타락은 인류로 하여금 어떠한 처지에 이르게 하였는가?
답. 이 타락은 인류로 하여금 죄와 비참의 처지에 이르게 하였다.
문 24. 죄는 무엇인가?
답. 죄는 이성적 피조물에게 법칙으로 주신 하나님의 율법에 순복함에 부족한 것이나 이를 범하는 것이다.
(요일3:4; 갈3:10, 12)
문 25. 사람이 타락한 그 처지의 죄악성은 무엇으로 구성되었는가?
답. 사람이 타락한 처지의 죄악성은 아담의 첫 범죄의 죄책과 그가 창조함을 받았을 때의 의가 없음과 그의 성품의 부패로 구성되었다. 이로 인하여 그는 영적으로 선한 모든 것에 대해서 전혀 싫증을 내며 선행할 능력도 없으며 오히려 악한 것에만 전적으로 또는 계속적으로 기울어지게 되니 이를 보통 원죄라 일컬으며 이 원죄에서 모든 실제적인 범죄가 나오는 것이다.
(롬5:12, 19, 3:10-19, 2:1-3, 5:6, 8:7, 8; 창6:5; 약1:14, 15; 마15:9)
문 26. 원죄는 어떻게 우리 시조로부터 그 후손에게 전해지는가?
답. 원죄는 우리 시조로부터 그 후손에게 자연 생육법으로 전해지므로 우리 시조에게서 생육법으로 출생하는 모든 후손은 죄 중에 잉태되어 출생하게 된다.
(시51:5; 욥14:4, 15:14; 요3:6)
문 27. 타락은 인류에게 어떠한 불행을 가져왔는가?
답. 타락은 하나님과의 절교를 가져왔고 또 그의 진노와 저주를 인류에게 가져왔으므로 우리는 본질상 진노의 자식이 되고 사단에게 매인 종이 되었으니 현세와 내세의 모든 형벌을 받아 마땅하다.
(창3:8, 10, 24, 2:17; 엡2:2, 3; 딤후2:26; 애3:39; 롬6:23; 마25:41, 46; 유7)
문 28. 현세에 있어서 죄의 형벌이란 무엇인가?
답. 현세에 있어서 죄의 형벌이란 내적으로 마음의 굳어짐, 타락한 지각, 강한 유혹, 마음의 고집, 양심의 공포와 부끄러움, 정욕 같은 것이나 외적으로는 우리 때문에 하나님께서 만물을 저주하신 일, 우리들의 몸, 이름, 지위, 관계, 직업 등에 생긴 다른 모든 악과 더불어 사망에 이르게 되는 것이다.
(엡4:18; 롬1:26, 28, 2:5, 6:21, 23; 살후2:11; 사33:14; 창4:13, 3:17; 마27:4; 신28:15-68)
문 29. 내세에 있을 죄의 형벌은 무엇인가?
답. 내세에 있을 죄의 형벌은 평안한 하나님의 목전에서 영원히 떨어져 몸과 영혼이 가장 심한 고통을 쉬임 없이 지옥 불에서 받는 것이다.
(살후1:9; 막9:43, 44, 46, 48; 눅16:24)
문 30. 하나님께서 모든 인류를 죄와 비참한 자리에서 멸망하게 버려두셨는가?
답. 하나님께서는 모든 사람을 흔히 행위 계약이라 칭하는 첫 언약을 위반하여 타락한 죄와 비참한 상태에서 멸망하게 버려두지 않으시고 단순히 사랑하심과 자비하심으로 은혜계약이라 칭하는 둘째 언약으로 그 가운데 택한 자를 구출하셔서 그들로 하여금 구원의 자리에 이르게 하셨다.
(살전5:9; 갈3:10, 12, 21; 딛3:4-7; 롬3:20-22)