WESTMINSTER LARGER CATECHISM
WITH PROOF TEXTS
Q. 61. Are all they saved who hear the gospel, and live in the church?
A. All that hear the gospel, and live in the visible church, are not saved; but they only who are true members of the church invisible.
Q. 62. What is the visible church?
A. The visible church is a society made up of all such as in all ages and places of the world do profess the true religion, and of their children.
Q. 63. What are the special privileges of the visible church?
A. The visible church hath the privilege of being under God’s special care and government; of being protected and preserved in all ages, notwithstanding the opposition of all enemies; and of enjoying the communion of saints, the ordinary means of salvation, and offers of grace by Christ to all the members of it in the ministry of the gospel, testifying, that whosoever believes in him shall be saved, and excluding none that will come unto him.
Q. 64. What is the invisible church?
A. The invisible church is the whole number of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ the head.
Q. 65. What special benefits do the members of the invisible church enjoy by Christ?
A. The members of the invisible church by Christ enjoy union and communion with him in grace and glory.
Q. 66. What is that union which the elect have with Christ?
A. The union which the elect have with Christ is the work of God’s grace, whereby they are spiritually and mystically, yet really and inseparably, joined to Christ as their head and husband; which is done in their effectual calling.
Q. 67. What is effectual calling?
A. Effectual calling is the work of God’s almighty power and grace, whereby (out of his free and special love to his elect, and from nothing in them moving him thereunto)he doth, in his accepted time, invite and draw them to Jesus Christ, by his Word and Spirit; savingly enlightening their minds, renewing and powerfully determining their wills, so as they (although in themselves dead in sin) are hereby made willing and able freely to answer his call, and to accept and embrace the grace offered and conveyed therein.
Q. 68. Are the elect only effectually called?
A. All the elect, and they only, are effectually called: although others may be, and often are, outwardly called by the ministry of the Word, and have some common operations of the Spirit; who, for their wilful neglect and contempt of the grace offered to them, being justly left in their unbelief, do never truly come to Jesus Christ.
Q. 69. What is the communion in grace which the members of the invisible church have with Christ?
A. The communion in grace which the members of the invisible church have with Christ, is their partaking of the virtue of his mediation, in their justification, adoption,sanctification, and whatever else, in this life, manifests their union with him.
Q. 70. What is justification?
A. Justification is an act of God’s free grace unto sinners, in which he pardoneth all their sins, accepteth and accounteth their persons righteous in his sight; not for any thing wrought in them, or done by them, but only for the perfect obedience and full satisfaction of Christ, by God imputed to them, and received by faith alone.
John 12:38-40. That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them. Romans 9:6. Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel. Matthew 22:14. For many are called, but few are chosen. Matthew 7:21. Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. Romans 11:7. What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded
 1 Corinthians 1:2. Unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours. 1 Corinthians 12:13. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. Romans 15:9-12. And that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy; as it is written, For this cause I will confess to thee among the Gentiles, and sing unto thy name. And again he saith, Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people. And again, Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles; and laud him, all ye people. And again, Esaias saith, There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles trust. Revelation 7:9. After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands. Psalm 2:8. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. Psalm 22:27-31. All the ends of the world shall remember and turn unto the LORD: and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before thee. For the kingdom is the LORD'S: and he is the governor among the nations. All they that be fat upon earth shall eat and worship: all they that go down to the dust shall bow before him: and none can keep alive his own soul. A seed shall serve him; it shall be accounted to the Lord for a generation. They shall come, and shall declare his righteousness unto a people that shall be born, that he hath done this. Psalm 45:17. I will make thy name to be remembered in all generations: therefore shall the people praise thee for ever and ever. Matthew 28:19-20. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen. Isaiah 59:21. As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the LORD; My spirit that is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the LORD, from henceforth and for ever.
 1 Corinthians 7:14. For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the husband: else were your children unclean; but now are they holy. Acts 2:39.For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call. Romans 11:16. For if the firstfruit be holy, the lump is also holy: and if the root be holy, so are the branches. Genesis 17:7. And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee.
 Isaiah 9:5-6. For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire. For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. 1 Timothy 4:10. For therefore we both labour and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe.
 Psalm 115:1-2, 9. Not unto us, O LORD, not unto us, but unto thy name give glory, for thy mercy, and for thy truth's sake. Wherefore should the heathen say, Where is now their God?... O Israel, trust thou in the LORD: he is their help and their shield. Isaiah 31:4-5. For thus hath the LORD spoken unto me, Like as the lion and the young lion roaring on his prey, when a multitude of shepherds is called forth against him, he will not be afraid of their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of them: so shall the LORD of hosts come down to fight for mount Zion, and for the hill thereof. As birds flying, so will the LORD of hosts defend Jerusalem; defending also he will deliver it; and passing over he will preserve it. Zechariah 12:2-4, 8-9. Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and against Jerusalem. And in that day will I make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people: all that burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, though all the people of the earth be gathered together against it. In that day, saith the LORD, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness: and I will open mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the people with blindness.... In that day shall the LORD defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David shall be as God, as the angel of the LORD before them. And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem.
 Acts 2:39, 42. For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call.... And they continued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.
 Psalm 147:19-20. He showeth his word unto Jacob, his statutes and his judgments unto Israel. He hath not dealt so with any nation: and as for his judgments, they have not known them. Praise ye the LORD. Romans 9:4. Who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises. Ephesians 4:11-12. And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ. Mark 16:15-16. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.
 John 6:37. All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out.
 Ephesians 1:10. That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him. Ephesians 1:22-23. And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church, Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all. John 10:16. And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd. John 11:52. And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.
 John 17:21. That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. Ephesians 2:5-6. Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus. John 17:24. Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.
 Ephesians 1:22. And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church. Ephesians 2:6-7. And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus: That in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.
 1 Corinthians 6:17. But he that is joined unto the Lord is one spirit. John 10:28. And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.Ephesians 5:23, 30. For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body.... For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.
 1 Peter 5:10. But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you. 1 Corinthians 1:9. God is faithful, by whom ye were called unto the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord.
 John 5:25. Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live. Ephesians 1:18-20. The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places. 2 Timothy 1:8-9. Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God; Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began.
 Titus 3:4-5. But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost. Ephesians 2:4-5, 7-9. But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;).... That in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus. For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. Romans 9:11. For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth.
 2 Corinthians 5:20. Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God. 2 Corinthians 6:1-2. We then, as workers together with him, beseech you also that ye receive not the grace of God in vain. (For he saith, I have heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of salvation have I succoured thee: behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation.) John 6:44. No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day. 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14. But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth: Whereunto he called you by our gospel, to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
 Acts 26:18. To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me. 1 Corinthians 2:10, 12. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.... Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.
 Ezekiel 11:19. And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh. Ezekiel 36:26-27. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them. John 6:45. It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.
 Ephesians 2:5. Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) Philippians 2:13. For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure. Deuteronomy 30:6. And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live.
 Acts 13:48. And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.
 Matthew 22:14. For many are called, but few are chosen.
 Matthew 7:22. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? Hebrews 6:4-6. For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
 John 12:38-40. That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them. Acts 28:25-27. And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers, Saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive: For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them. John 6:64-65.But there are some of you that believe not. For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were that believed not, and who should betray him. And he said, Therefore said I unto you, that no man can come unto me, except it were given unto him of my Father. Psalm 81:11-12. But my people would not hearken to my voice; and Israel would none of me. So I gave them up unto their own hearts' lust: and they walked in their own counsels.
 Romans 8:30. Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.
 Ephesians 1:5. Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will.
 1 Corinthians 1:30. But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption.
 Romans 3:22, 24-25. Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference.... Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God. Romans 4:5. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness.
 2 Corinthians 5:19, 21. To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation.... For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. Romans 3:22, 24-25, 27-28. Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference.... Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God.... Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? of works? Nay: but by the law of faith. Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.
 Titus 3:5, 7. Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.... That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. Ephesians 1:7. In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace.
 Romans 5:17-19. For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.) Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. Romans 4:6-8. Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, Saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin.
 Acts 10:43. To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins. Galatians 2:16. Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified. Philippians 3:9. And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith.
웨스터 민스터 대요리문답
61항 - 70항
문 61. 복음을 듣고 교회 안에서 생활하는 사람들은 다 구원을 얻겠는가?
답. 복음을 듣고 유형교회에서 생활하는 사람들이 다 구원을 얻을 수 있는 것은 아니고 다만 무형교회의 진정한 회원만이 구원을 얻는 것이다.
(요12:38-40; 롬9:6, 11:7; 마22:14, 7:21)
문 62. 유형교회란 무엇인가?
답. 유형교회라는 것은 참 종교를 고백하는 세계의 모든 시대와 장소에 있는 모든 사람과 그들의 자녀로 구성된 한 단체이다.
(고전1:2, 12:13, 7:14; 롬15:9-12, 9:1, 6; 계7:9; 시2:8, 22:27-31, 45:17; 마28:19, 20; 사59:21; 행2:39; 창17:7)
문 63. 유형교회의 특권은 무엇인가?
답. 유형교회가 갖는 특권은 하나님의 특별한 보호와 관리 밑에 있는 것과, 모든 적의 반항에도 불구하고 모든 시대에 있어서 보호를 받으며 보존되는 것들이다. 성도의 교통과 구원의 방편과 복음의 역사로 오는 은혜의 초청이다. 곧 교회의 모든 회원들에게 누구든지 그를 믿으면 구원 얻고 그에게 오는 자를 한 사람도 버리지 않으시겠다고 증언하시는 그리스도에 의한 은혜의 초청을 누리는 특권이다.
(사4:5, 6, 31:4, 5; 딤전4:10; 시115:1-18, 147:19, 20; 스12:2-4, 8, 9; 행2:39, 42; 롬9:4; 엡4:11, 12; 막16:15, 16; 요6:37)
문 64. 무형교회란 무엇인가?
답. 무형교회는 머리되시는 그리스도 밑에 하나로 모이며 장차 모일 택한 자의 총수이다.
(엡1:10, 22, 23; 요10:15, 11:52)
문 65. 무형교회 회원들은 그리스도로 말미암아 어떠한 특별한 혜택을 누리는가?
답. 무형교회 회원은 그리스도로 말미암아 은혜와 영광 중에 주님과의 연합과 교통을 누린다.
(요17:21, 24; 엡2:5, 6)
문 66. 선택된 자가 그리스도와 함께 가지는 연합이란 무엇인가?
답. 선택된 자가 그리스도에게 연합됨은 하나님의 은혜의 역사니 이로 말미암아 영적으로 신비적으로 참으로 나눌 수 없이 그들의 머리와 남편이 되시는 그리스도께 결합되는 것이다. 이는 그들의 유효한 부르심에서 이루어지는 것이다.
(엡1:22, 2:6-8, 5:23, 30; 고전6:17, 1:9; 요10:28; 벧전5:10)
문 67. 유효한 부르심이라는 것은 무엇인가?
답. 유효한 부르심이라는 것은 하나님의 전능하신 권능과 은혜의 역사인데 이로 말미암아(그의 택하신 자에게 거저 주시는 특별한 사랑이요 그들 안에 있는 어떤 것도 하나님을 감동시켜 그것을 행하게 한 것이 아니니) 하나님은 그의 받으실 만한 때에 그 말씀과 영으로 말미암아 그들을 불러 예수 그리스도께 가까이 나아오게 하셔서 그들의 마음을 성령으로 밝히시어 구원을 깨닫게 하신다. 또 그들의 의지를 새롭게 하시고 결심하게 하심으로 그들로(비록 그들 자신은 죄 가운데 죽었으나) 기꺼운 마음으로 주님의 부르심에 응하여 그 가운데 제공되어 전해진 은혜를 받아들일 수 있게 하는 것이다.
(요5:25, 6:44, 45; 엡1:18-20, 2:5; 딤후5:20, 6:1, 2; 살후2:13, 14; 행26:18; 고전2:10, 12; 겔 11:19, 36:26, 27; 빌2:13; 신30:6)
문 68. 선택함을 입은 자만이 유효하게 부르심을 받는가?
답. 선택함을 입은 자들만이 유효하게 부르심을 받는다. 선택받지 못한 사람들은 비록 말씀의 사역에 의해 외적으로 부르심을 받고 성령의 어떤 일반 역사를 가질 수 있을지라도 그들에게 제공된 은혜를 고의로 등한시하고 경멸하다가 의당 불 신앙에 떨어져서 예수 그리스도께로 참으로 나아오지 않게 된다.
(행13:48, 28:25-27; 마22:14, 7:22, 13:20, 21; 히6:4-6; 요12:38-40, 6:64-65; 시81:11, 12)
문 69. 무형교회의 회원들이 그리스도와 더불어 갖는 은혜의 교통이란 무엇인가?
답. 무형교회의 회원이 그리스도와 갖는 은혜의 교통이란 그들의 칭의와 양자 됨과 성화와 현세에서 그리스도와의 연합올 통하여 받는 여러 가지 유익이니 곧 그의 중재의 효능에 참여하는데서 오는 것이다.
(롬8:30; 엡1:5; 고전1:30)
문 70. 의롭다하심(칭의)이란 무엇인가?
답. 의롭다하심이란 죄인들에게 거저 주시는 하나님의 은혜 행위인데 하나님이 그들의 모든 죄를 사하시고 자기 목전에 그들을 의로운 자들로 여기시고 받으시는 것이다. 그것은 그들 스스로 할 수 있는 것도 아니고 그들이 행한 어떤 일로 인한 것도 아니나. 오로지 그리스도의 온전한 순종과 완전한 대속을 보시고 그리스도의 의를 저희에게 전가시키고 오직 믿음으로만 받게 되는 것이다.
(롬3:22, 24, 25, 3:22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 5:17-19; 고후5:19, 21; 딛3:5, 7; 엡1:7; 행10:43; 갈2:16; 빌3:9)