WESTMINSTER LARGER CATECHISM
WITH PROOF TEXTS
Q. 41. Why was our Mediator called Jesus?
A. Our Mediator was called Jesus, because he saveth his people from their sins.
Q. 42. Why was our Mediator called Christ?
A. Our Mediator was called Christ, because he was anointed with the Holy Ghost above measure, and so set apart, and fully furnished with all authority and ability, to execute the offices of prophet, priest, and king of his church, in the estate both of his humiliation and exaltation.
Q. 43. How doth Christ execute the office of a prophet?
A. Christ executeth the office of a prophet, in his revealing to the church, in all ages, by his Spirit and Word, in divers ways of administration, the whole will of God, in all things concerning their edification and salvation.
Q. 44. How doth Christ execute the office of a priest?
A. Christ executeth the office of a priest, in his once offering himself a sacrifice without spot to God, to be reconciliation for the sins of his people; and in making continual intercession for them.
Q. 45. How doth Christ execute the office of a king?
A. Christ executeth the office of a king, in calling out of the world a people to himself, and giving them officers, laws, and censures, by which he visibly governs them; in bestowing saving grace upon his elect, rewarding their obedience, and correcting them for their sins, preserving and supporting them under all their temptations and sufferings, restraining and overcoming all their enemies, and powerfully ordering all things for his own glory, and their good; and also in taking vengeance on the rest, who know not God, and obey not the gospel.
Q. 46. What was the estate of Christ's humiliation?
A. The estate of Christ's humiliation was that low condition, wherein he for our sakes, emptying himself of his glory, took upon him the form of a servant, in his conception and birth, life, death, and after his death, until his resurrection.
Q. 47. How did Christ humble himself in his conception and birth?
A. Christ humbled himself in his conception and birth, in that, being from all eternity the Son of God, in the bosom of the Father, he was pleased in the fulness of time to become the son of man, made of a woman of low estate, and to be born of her; with divers circumstances of more than ordinary abasement.
Q. 48. How did Christ humble himself in his life?
A. Christ humbled himself in his life, by subjecting himself to the law, which he perfectly fulfilled; and by conflicting with the indignities of the world, temptations of Satan, and infirmities in his flesh, whether common to the nature of man, or particularly accompanying that his low condition.
Q. 49. How did Christ humble himself in his death?
A. Christ humbled himself in his death, in that having been betrayed by Judas, forsaken by his disciples, scorned and rejected by the world, condemned by Pilate, and tormented by his persecutors; having also conflicted with the terrors of death, and the powers of darkness, felt and borne the weight of God's wrath, he laid down his life an offering for sin, enduring the painful, shameful, and cursed death of the cross.
Q. 50. Wherein consisted Christ's humiliation after his death?
A. Christ's humiliation after his death consisted in his being buried, and continuing in the state of the dead, and under the power of death till the third day; which hath been otherwise expressed in these words, He descended into hell.
Matthew 1:21. And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.
 John 3:34. For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him. Psalm 45:7. Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.
 John 6:27. Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you: for him hath God the Father sealed.Matthew 28:18-20. And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.
 Acts 3:21-22. Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began. For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you. Luke 4:18, 21. The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised.... And he began to say unto them, This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears.
 Hebrews 5:5-7. So also Christ glorified not himself to be made an high priest; but he that said unto him, Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee. As he saith also in another place, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec. Who in the days of his flesh, when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death, and was heard in that he feared. Hebrews 4:14-15. Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession. For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.
 Psalm 2:6. Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion. Matthew 21:5. Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass. Isaiah 9:6-7. For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this. Philippians 2:8-11. And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
 John 1:18. No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.
 1 Peter 1:10-12. Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.
 Hebrews 1:1-2. God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds.
 John 15:15. Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of my Father I have made known unto you.
 Acts 20:23. Save that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions abide me. Ephesians 4:11-13. And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ. John 20:31. But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name.
 Hebrews 9:14, 28. How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?... So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.
 Hebrews 2:17. Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.
 Hebrews 7:25. Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.
 Acts 15:14-16. Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up. Genesis 49:10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. Psalm 110:3. Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.
 Ephesians 4:11-12. And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ. 1 Corinthians 12:28. And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.
 Isaiah 33:22. For the LORD is our judge, the LORD is our lawgiver, the LORD is our king; he will save us.
 Matthew 18:17-18. And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as a heathen man and a publican. Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 1 Corinthians 5:4-5. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.
 Acts 5:31. Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.
 Revelation 22:12. And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be. Revelation 2:10. Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.
 Revelation 3:19. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and repent.
 Isaiah 63:9. In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old.
 1 Corinthians 15:25. For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. Psalm 110:1-2. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.
 Romans 14:10-11. But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. For it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.
 Romans 8:28. And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.
 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9. In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power. Psalm 2:8-9. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.
 Philippians 2:6-8. Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Luke 1:31. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. 2 Corinthians 8:9. For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich. Acts 2:24. Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be holden of it.
 John 1:14, 18. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.... No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. Galatians 4:4. But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law. Luke 2:7. And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.
 Galatians 4:4. But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law.
 Matthew 5:17. Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. Romans 5:19. For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.
 Psalm 22:6. But I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people. Hebrews 12:2-3. Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds.
 Matthew 4:1-12. Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil, etc. Luke 4:13. And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.
 Hebrews 2:17-18. Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people. For in that he himself hath suffered being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted. Hebrews 4:15. For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin. Isaiah 52:13-14. Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high. As many were astonied at thee; his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men.
 Matthew 27:4. Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that.
 Matthew 26:56. But all this was done, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. Then all the disciples forsook him, and fled.
 Isaiah 53:2-3. For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
 Matthew 27:26-50. Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified, etc. John 19:34. But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.
 Luke 22:44. And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. Matthew 27:46. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
 Isaiah 53:10. Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.
 Philippians 2:8. And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Hebrews 12:2. Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. Galatians 3:13. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree.
 1 Corinthians 15:3-4. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures.
 Psalm 16:10. For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. Acts 2:24-27, 31. Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be holden of it. For David speaketh concerning him, I foresaw the Lord always before my face, for he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved: Therefore did my heart rejoice, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall rest in hope: Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.... He seeing this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption. Romans 6:9. Knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him. Matthew 12:40. For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
웨스터 민스터 대요리문답
41항 - 50항
문 41. 어찌하여 우리 중보자를 예수라 하는가?
답. 우리의 중보자를 예수라 한 까닭은 그가 자기 백성을 저희 죄에서 구원하셨기 때문이었다.
문 42. 왜 우리의 중보자를 그리스도라 하였는가?
답. 우리의 중보자를 그리스도라 한 것은 낮아지고 높아지신 그의 신분에서 그의 교회의 선지자와 제사장과 왕의 직분을 행하게 하시려고 한량없이 성령으로 기름 부으심을 받고 성별 되시어 모든 권세와 능력을 충만히 받으셨기 때문이었다.
(요3:34, 6:27; 시2:6; 45:7; 마21:5, 28:18-20; 행3:21, 22; 눅4:18, 21; 히4:14, 15, 5:5-7; 사9:6; 빌2:8-11)
문 43. 그리스도께서 어떻게 선지자의 직분을 행하시는가?
답. 그리스도께서 선지자의 직분을 행하시는 것은 구원에 관한 모든 일에 있어서 여러 가지 방법으로 하나님의 온전하신 뜻을 나타내심에 있으니 곧 그의 성령과 말씀으로 만대의 교회에게 계시하심에서이다.
(요1:18; 벧전1:10-12; 히1:1, 2; 행20:32; 엡4:11)
문 44. 그리스도께서 어떻게 제사장의 직분을 행하시는가?
답. 그리스도께서 제사장의 직분을 행하시는 것은 단번에 자기를 흠없는 제물로 하나님께 드려 그 백성의 죄 대신 화목 제물이 되시고 또 저희를 위하여 항상 간구하시는 것이다.
(히9:14, 28, 2:17, 7:25)
문 45. 그리스도께서 어떻게 왕의 직분을 행하시는가?
답. 그리스도께서 한 백성을 세상으로부터 자기에게 불러내시고 저희에게 교직자들과 율법과 권능을 두시고 그로 말미암아 그들을 유형적으로 다스리심으로 왕의 직분을 행하신다. 택하신 자에게 구원의 은혜를 주시고 순종하면 상주시고 범죄 하면 징계하신다. 모든 시험과 고난 중에서 그들을 보존하시고 지켜주실 뿐 아니라 그들의 모든 적을 물리쳐 정복하심으로 모든 것은 자신의 영광과 그들의 선을 위하여 권세로 처리하시고 하나님을 모르고 복음을 순종하지 않는 나머지 사람들에게 원수를 갚으신다.
(행5:31, 15:14-16; 사55:4, 5, 33:22, 63; 9; 창49:10; 시2:8, 9, 110:1-7; 엡4:11, 12; 고전5:4, 5, 12:28, 15:25; 마18:17, 18; 계22:12, 2:10, 3:19; 롬14:10, 11, 8:28; 살후1:8, 9)
문 46. 그리스도의 낮아지심의 상태는 어떠한가?
답. 그리스도의 낮아지심의 상태는 우리를 위하여 자기의 영광을 내버리시고 종의 형상을 취하셔서 성령으로 잉태되어 동정녀 마리아에게 나시고 지상에서 사시다가 십자가에 못 박혀 죽으시고 죽으신 후 부활하기까지의 낮은 상태이다.
(빌2:6-8; 눅1:31; 고후8:9; 행2:24)
문 47. 그리스도께서 잉태되어 나실 때에 어떻게 자기를 낮추셨는가?
답. 그리스도께서 잉태되시고 나심에 자기를 낮추셨으니 곧 아버지 하나님의 아들이시지만 때가 차매 비천한 신분의 여자에게서 잉태되시고 나시어 인자가 되심으로 여러 가지 환경에서 보통 사람들 보다 더 낮아지셨다.
(요1:14, 18, 갈4:4; 롬2:7)
문 48. 그리스도께서 그의 지상 생활에서 어떻게 자기를 낮추셨는가?
답. 그리스도께서 그의 지상 생활에서 자기를 낮추신 것은 율법에 복종하여 율법을 온전히 이루심으로 인간 본성에게 공통적으로 있는 일이나 특히 그의 낮아지심에서 따랐던 세상의 모욕, 사단의 시험, 육신의 연약성 등으로 더불어 충돌하심에 있었다.
(갈4:4; 마4:1. 2, 5:17; 롬5:19; 시22:6, 52:13, 14; 히12:2, 3; 눅4:13; 히2:17, 18, 4:15)
문 49. 그리스도께서 그의 죽음에서 어떻게 자기를 낮추셨는가?
답. 그리스도께서 그의 죽음에서 자기를 낮추신 것은 가룟 유다에게 배반당하시고 그 제자들에게도 버림 받으시고 세상의 조롱과 배척을 받으시고 빌라도에게 정죄 받으신 후 핍박하는 자들에게 고난을 받으시고 죽음의 공포와 흑암의 권세와 싸우시며 하나님의 무서운 진노를 느끼시고 견디시고 자기 생명을 속죄 제물로 내놓으시고 고통과 수욕과 저주된 십자가의 죽음을 참으심에서였다.
(마27:4, 25-50, 26:56; 사53:2. 3, 10; 요19:34; 눅22:44; 빌2:8; 히12:2; 갈3:13)
문 50. 그리스도께서 죽으신 후 그의 낮아지심은 어떻게 이루어졌는가?
답. 그리스도께서 죽으신 후 그의 낮아지심은 장사됨과 죽은 자의 상태를 계속하시고 제 삼일까지 사망의 권세 아래 계신 것이니 이를 다른 말로 ?그가 지옥으로 내려가셨다?고 표현한다.
(고전15:3, 4; 시16:10; 행2:24-27, 31; 롬6:9; 마12:20)